The. Myths. &. Legends of. Ancient. Greece and Rome. E. M. Berens. ΜεταLibri public domain, this pdf edition is a copyrighted publica- tion. By E. M. Berens. This is a comprehensive collection of all the major and minor gods of Rome and Greece, with descriptions of festivals and retellings of major. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg.
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and legends1 (Morford and Lenardon 3) of ancient Greece and Rome. ( i. e. 'myth' and 'legend') and discuss the 'impossibility of establishing a http:// maitertirazo.ga PDF version of THE Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome. by EM Berens. Apple To read the whole book, please download the full eBook PDF. Free download of THE Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome. by EM Berens. Available in PDF, ePub and Kindle. Read, write reviews and more.
Cronus "the wily, youngest and most terrible of Gaia's children"  , was convinced by Gaia to castrate his father. He did this, and became the ruler of the Titans with his sister-wife Rhea as his consort, and the other Titans became his court.
A motif of father-against-son conflict was repeated when Cronus was confronted by his son, Zeus. Because Cronus had betrayed his father, he feared that his offspring would do the same, and so each time Rhea gave birth, he snatched up the child and ate it.
Rhea hated this and tricked him by hiding Zeus and wrapping a stone in a baby's blanket, which Cronus ate. When Zeus was full grown, he fed Cronus a drugged drink which caused him to vomit, throwing up Rhea's other children, including Poseidon , Hades , Hestia , Demeter , and Hera , and the stone, which had been sitting in Cronus's stomach all this time. Zeus then challenged Cronus to war for the kingship of the gods. At last, with the help of the Cyclopes whom Zeus freed from Tartarus , Zeus and his siblings were victorious, while Cronus and the Titans were hurled down to imprisonment in Tartarus.
Zeus was plagued by the same concern, and after a prophecy that the offspring of his first wife, Metis , would give birth to a god "greater than he", Zeus swallowed her. Orpheus , the archetypal poet, also was the archetypal singer of theogonies, which he uses to calm seas and storms in Apollonius' Argonautica , and to move the stony hearts of the underworld gods in his descent to Hades.
When Hermes invents the lyre in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, the first thing he does is sing about the birth of the gods. Theogony also was the subject of many lost poems, including those attributed to Orpheus, Musaeus , Epimenides , Abaris , and other legendary seers, which were used in private ritual purifications and mystery-rites.
There are indications that Plato was familiar with some version of the Orphic theogony. After they ceased to become religious beliefs, few would have known the rites and rituals. Allusions often existed, however, to aspects that were quite public.
Images existed on pottery and religious artwork that were interpreted and more likely, misinterpreted in many diverse myths and tales.
A few fragments of these works survive in quotations by Neoplatonist philosophers and recently unearthed papyrus scraps. Some of these popular conceptions can be gleaned from the poetry of Homer and Hesiod. In Homer, the Earth was viewed as a flat disk afloat on the river of Oceanus and overlooked by a hemispherical sky with sun, moon, and stars. The Sun Helios traversed the heavens as a charioteer and sailed around the Earth in a golden bowl at night.
Sun, earth, heaven, rivers, and winds could be addressed in prayers and called to witness oaths. Natural fissures were popularly regarded as entrances to the subterranean house of Hades and his predecessors, home of the dead. Greek pantheon Zeus, disguised as a swan , seduces Leda , the Queen of Sparta. A sixteenth-century copy of the lost original by Michelangelo. According to Classical-era mythology, after the overthrow of the Titans, the new pantheon of gods and goddesses was confirmed.
The limitation of their number to twelve seems to have been a comparatively modern idea. In addition, there were the dark powers of the underworld, such as the Erinyes or Furies , said to pursue those guilty of crimes against blood-relatives. According to Walter Burkert , the defining characteristic of Greek anthropomorphism is that "the Greek gods are persons, not abstractions, ideas or concepts".
The Greeks considered immortality as the distinctive characteristic of their gods; this immortality, as well as unfading youth, was insured by the constant use of nectar and ambrosia , by which the divine blood was renewed in their veins. When these gods are called upon in poetry, prayer or cult, they are referred to by a combination of their name and epithets , that identify them by these distinctions from other manifestations of themselves e.
Alternatively the epithet may identify a particular and localized aspect of the god, sometimes thought to be already ancient during the classical epoch of Greece. Most gods were associated with specific aspects of life. For example, Aphrodite was the goddess of love and beauty, Ares was the god of war, Hades the ruler of the underworld, and Athena the goddess of wisdom and courage.
The most impressive temples tended to be dedicated to a limited number of gods, who were the focus of large pan-Hellenic cults. It was, however, common for individual regions and villages to devote their own cults to minor gods. Many cities also honored the more well-known gods with unusual local rites and associated strange myths with them that were unknown elsewhere.
During the heroic age, the cult of heroes or demigods supplemented that of the gods. Age of gods and mortals Bridging the age when gods lived alone and the age when divine interference in human affairs was limited was a transitional age in which gods and mortals moved together.
These were the early days of the world when the groups mingled more freely than they did later. Most of these tales were later told by Ovid's Metamorphoses and they are often divided into two thematic groups: tales of love, and tales of punishment. Tales of love often involve incest, or the seduction or rape of a mortal woman by a male god, resulting in heroic offspring. The stories generally suggest that relationships between gods and mortals are something to avoid; even consenting relationships rarely have happy endings.
Ian Morris considers Prometheus' adventures as "a place between the history of the gods and that of man". In another story, based on an old folktale-motif,  and echoing a similar theme, Demeter was searching for her daughter, Persephone , having taken the form of an old woman called Doso, and received a hospitable welcome from Celeus , the King of Eleusis in Attica.
As a gift to Celeus, because of his hospitality, Demeter planned to make his son Demophon a god, but she was unable to complete the ritual because his mother Metanira walked in and saw her son in the fire and screamed in fright, which angered Demeter, who lamented that foolish mortals do not understand the concept and ritual.
According to Ken Dowden , "There is even a saga effect: We can follow the fates of some families in successive generations". Great gods are no longer born, but new heroes can always be raised up from the army of the dead. Some scholars believe  that behind Heracles' complicated mythology there was probably a real man, perhaps a chieftain-vassal of the kingdom of Argos.
Some scholars suggest the story of Heracles is an allegory for the sun's yearly passage through the twelve constellations of the zodiac. Traditionally, Heracles was the son of Zeus and Alcmene , granddaughter of Perseus.
According to Burkert, "He is portrayed as a sacrificer, mentioned as a founder of altars, and imagined as a voracious eater himself; it is in this role that he appears in comedy, While his tragic end provided much material for tragedy— Heracles is regarded by Thalia Papadopoulou as "a play of great significance in examination of other Euripidean dramas".
Vase paintings demonstrate the unparalleled popularity of Heracles, his fight with the lion being depicted many hundreds of times.
This probably served as a legitimation for the Dorian migrations into the Peloponnese. Hyllus , the eponymous hero of one Dorian phyle , became the son of Heracles and one of the Heracleidae or Heraclids the numerous descendants of Heracles, especially the descendants of Hyllus —other Heracleidae included Macaria , Lamos, Manto , Bianor , Tlepolemus , and Telephus. These Heraclids conquered the Peloponnesian kingdoms of Mycenae , Sparta and Argos , claiming, according to legend, a right to rule them through their ancestor.
Their rise to dominance is frequently called the " Dorian invasion ". Opening with the question of influence of Homer's Iliad, the Bible, the Koran, and Egyptian literature, Shalom examines various "Joseph" narratives and the motif of the "spurned wife" in ancient Mediterranean cultures. Graf, Fritz. Greek Mythology: An Introduction. Highly regarded text for understanding the origins and the historicity of the continuum of myths in ancient Greece.
Greene, Mott T. Natural Knowledge in Preclassical Antiquity. Greene, a historian of geology, examines ancient Egyptian, Indian, and Greek myths and writings for natural knowledge about volcanoes, intoxicating plants, and other geophysical phenomena. Gunkel, Hermann. The Folktale in the Old Testament. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, Analyses biblical narratives of giants, demons, magic, and so on. Halliday, W.
Hansen, William. Burlakoff and C. Bloomington, IN: Trickster Press, This essay introduces the journal's special issue on classical folklore, including Hansen on the impact of nineteenth-century folkloristics on the classical discipline; Fontenrose on riddles, tasks, and predictions in ancient oracles; Russo on ancient Greek proverbs and folktales; and Hague on ancient wedding songs. Hansen argues that classicists should collect and classify ancient oral traditions themselves, since the standard categories created by older folklore disciplines are antiquated, inadequate, and misleading.
Grant and R. New York: Scribner's, Defines fable, anecdote, joke, magic tales, novella, legend, proverb, and riddle with classical examples. The bibliography is especially valuable. In analysing two versions of the Cupid and Psyche supernatural lover tale set in fourth-century BC Greece, Hansen shows how context reveals the storytellers' motives.
Lowell Edmunds. Traces the oral folktale of the Sailor and the Oar, first written down in Homer's Odyssey in the eighth century BC, through twenty-five texts up to twentieth- century comic strips. Hansen's approach melds comparative and contextual methods. Regina Bendix and Rosemary Zumwalt.
Relates the Old Testament story of Abraham and Isaac to the cluster of modern European Grateful Dead Man tales and finds vestiges of the motif of this international legend in ancient Greek literature. Compares the themes of ruse and counter-ruse in the Scandinavian myth of the theft and recovery of Thor's thunder hammer in the Elder Edda with a fifth-century AD Greek myth about Zeus.
In the latter, a monstrous giant steals Zeus's thunderbolts, which are retrieved in a manner similar to Thor's thunderweapons. Compares a recent African news story about a man who cast a spell to magically bind his wife to her lover during sex to the ancient anecdote in Homer's Odyssey about the gods Aphrodite and Ares, who were trapped by the god Hephaestus, the wronged husband. Complex analysis of the international tale of the hero or heroine who glimpses a forbidden sight and suffers for it.
Hansen finds evidence for an ancient but incomplete version in a famous Lydian story recorded by Herodotus in the fifth century BC. Phlegon of Tralles' Book of Marvels.
Exeter: Exeter University Press, First English translation of a compendium of bizarre natural wonders from the second century AD. Hansen's commentary on this lively example of ancient popular literature explains the classical context of Phlegon's marvels, and compares the genre of "paradoxography" to today's tabloid press. One long tale is an early and influential version of modern vampire legends.
Provocative essay argues that the scholarly discovery of the international folktale and the creation of folktale typologies began to change the study of classical mythology in useful ways, but after the s folklorists and classicists parted company and the revolution in mythology study has yet to occur. Hansen advises folklorists to look back to ancient literature and classicists to look forward to folklore methods. A survey of scholarly work on international oral tales in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.
Examines two instances in which comic ancient Greek tales were refashioned into non-comic narratives to illustrate serious ideals. Hansen, William, ed. Anthology of Ancient Greek Popular Literature. Argues that popular literature, a genre now associated with the printing press and tabloids, existed in classical antiquity, especially after the first century AD.
Hansen, a classical folklorist, seeks to rescue such literature from marginalisation; this compilation includes romantic and comic novels, fables and wisdom literature, ancient jokes, and popular gravestone verses. A mini-encyclopaedia of more than one hundred international oral stories that have numerous parallels in ancient Greek and Roman literature. The most extensive investigation ever undertaken of contemporary folklore in classical literature.
Hartland, E. Mythology and Folktales: Their Relation and Interpretation. London: David Nutt, Argues that folktales originated from a body of believed myths, and that their character of "playful fiction" was a later development.
The Legend of Perseus. Hickman, Ruby Mildred. The appearance and behaviour of ghosts in ancient Greek drama. Himelick, Raymond. Brief discussion pointing out basic similarities between the modern urban legend of the Poison Dress and two ancient Greek legends. Huys, Marc. Leuven: Leuven University Press, This clearly written, interesting book combines folkloric and philological approaches to interpret Euripides's tragedies, focusing on the tale-pattern of the hero exposed at birth.
Huys compares the narrative sequence of motifs in this tale pattern in Euripides's tragedies mostly fragmentary. Uses folkloric methodology but his arguments are heavily philological and the Greek and Latin and other languages are not translated. Jastrow, Joseph. Error and Eccentricity in Human Belief. New York: Dover, Chapter 2, "An Ancient Miracle-Monger: Lucian's Alexander," discusses a trickster-huckster, faith healing, blackmailing hoaxer of the late Roman period. Jedrkiewicz, Stefano. Sapere e Paradosso nell'Antichita: Esopo e la favola [Wisdom and paradox in antiquity: Aesop and the fable].
Rome: Edizioni dell'Ateneo, Discusses the first to fourth century AD "Life of Aesop" as a work of popular literature, resulting in part from oral traditions of stories about unconventional "wise men.
Argues that in the Hellenistic and Imperial period of Greco-Roman culture, the storyteller Aesop came to represent popular wisdom as opposed to established, "scientific" knowledge. Il convitato sullo sgabello: Plutarco, Esopo ed i Sette Savi. Rome: Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali, Studies examples of popular wisdom in Plutarch and Aesop, such as fable, proverb, and riddle, as ancillary wisdom necessary to practical knowledge in antiquity. Johnston, Sarah Iles. Studies the variety of rituals performed at crossroads by ancient Greeks.
Johnston argues that intersections were perceived as liminal places where the supernatural and real world interact. Paul Mirecki and Marvin Meyer. Evidence for legends about babykilling demons in classical antiquity. Ghosts of women who died before reproducing, or after failing to raise children successfully, return to inflict the same fate on other women.
Clauss and S. Argues that the Euripidean portrait of Medea as an infanticide had roots in the folkloric paradigm of the child-killing demon. Studies ancient Greek ideas of the dead influencing the living including ghost stories and the living affecting the dead e. Topics include the angry dead, professionals who mediate between the living and dead, and the demonisation of the dead.
Kemper, J. Kemper begins with Robert Pirsig's musings on ghosts and Platonic ideals in Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance and ends with Shakespearean ghosts in this discussion of the influence of dramatic and rhetorical ghosts in classical antiquity on modern conceptions of demonic haunting.
Klotsche, Ernest Heinrich. Magical and paranormal phenomena as portrayed on the Athenian stage in the fifth century BC. Kos, Marjeta Sasel. Krauss, Franklin Brunell. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, Valuable survey of signs and portents during the Roman republic and empire. Kronenberg, Andreas. A current legend about a boiling spring told by a tribe in Libya is identical to a story about the same oasis recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus in the fifth century BC and the Roman natural historian Pliny in the first century AD.
Lassen, Henrik R. Chapters 5 and 6 present a detailed tracing of the Improved Product tale type, beginning with examples from first-century AD Rome, through medieval, and culminating in late twentieth-century versions. Applies a diachronic approach to legends about impossible, or "too good to be true" inventions.
The earliest examples of the Improved Product appeared in imperial Rome, in claims of flexible glass. The genre continues today in tales of perpetual light bulbs, ever sharp razors, cars that run without gas, disks that clean laundry without soap, etc.
Lawrence, Elizabeth Atwood. The contradictory image of the half-human, half- horse creature in art and literature from Mesopotamia of the second millennium BC to novels by John Updike and others. Useful for folklorists despite a preoccupation with origins. Lawson, John Cuthbert. New York: University Books, Recounts survivals of ancient legends and rituals in modern Greek village life. Leavy, Barbara Fass. To Blight with Plague. Traces transmission of disease in literature, from classical "poison damsel" lore to plague in the Middle Ages and today's AIDS urban legends.
Study of the legendary "swan maiden," an otherworldly female who is obliged to marry a mortal man, keep his house, and bear his children, because he has appropriated something she owns.
When she regains the item, she escapes to her supernatural domain. Comparing numerous versions, Leavy argues that the "runaway wife" theme resurfaces in popular culture as an outlet for feminist rage.
Leinweber, David Walter. The second-century Latin novel by Apuleius of North Africa is regarded as the finest source of magic as practised and perceived in late antiquity. Leinweber discusses the development of beliefs about sorcerers and female vampires lamiae in Greek and Roman texts through Apuleius and shows how they prefigured modern witchcraft and vampire legends. Levine, Daniel. Entertaining investigation of Homeric influences on the creator of the Alley Oop comic strip.
Lincoln, Bruce. Explores how myth, ritual, and classification bind and reconstruct societies during crises. Draws on Platonic philosophy, the Upanishads of India, ancient Celtic nabquets, the Spanish Civil War, the Iranian revolution, and professional wrestling. Littleton, C. Scott and Linda A. Lloyd, G.
Using comparative anthropology, Lloyd studies the interaction between scientific theory and popular assumptions in ancient Greek medicine and biology, especially relating to folklore about animals, women, and drugs. Locke, Liz. To find new meaning in the myth of Orpheus's descent to retrieve Eurydice from the Underworld, Locke considers ancient natural philosophy, Plato, Orphic, and Christian world-views via a feminist anthropology of sacrifice.
Luck, Georg. Matthews, John. Matthews compares a tale in the Welsh Mabinogion, the "Dream of Macsen Wledig," to historical accounts of Roman emperors and Usurpers in ancient England and Northern Europe, concluding that the Welsh legend conflates real details from the lives of Maximus and Constantine. Mayor, Adrienne. Legendary creatures in classical literature and art. Links a Gulf War atrocity to tales of despotic rulers of Persia told in fifth-century Greece by Herodotus.
Covers seafaring lore of "ghost ships" from Homer's Odyssey to "phantom" or haunted ships of the twentieth century. Using a comparative and contextual approach, Mayor analyses a rumour that aroused fear during the collapse of the Roman empire.
An encounter between the emperor and wolves was taken as a bad omen despite official reassurances, a familiar contemporary legend dynamic. The ancient Latin narrative parallels the modern urban legend of the "Choking Doberman.
Traces the modern trope of comparing wine glasses to women's bosoms to the earliest known instance, recounted by Pliny in the first century AD, in which a bronze wine-cup was supposedly cast in the form of Helen of Troy's breast. Considers palaeontological-archaeological- geological evidence for the classical griffin legend. Close readings of Greek and Roman descriptions suggest that the image of the griffin originated in ancient observations of dinosaur fossils by gold-mining nomads of central Asia in the seventh century BC.
Legends and facts about toxic honey from classical antiquity to the present. Suggests that intoxicating nectar may have inspired the mantic states of maenads and the Delphic oracle in ancient Greece. Discusses historical reality and international narratives about the deliberate contamination of clothing used as weapons against enemies, from ancient Greek tragedies to the colonial period in the New World and in modern conflicts.
Traces the Poison Garment motif in classical Greco- Roman literature. A specially treated combustible cloak was a lethal weapon of revenge in myth, drama, and history. Mayor argues that knowledge of volatile substances used in textiles and warfare influenced ancient narratives of flammable clothing.
Investigates biological warfare in classical Greek myths of the Trojan War, and rumours and the actual use of such weapons in Greek and Roman military history.
Collects ancient Greco-Roman lore about weasels and domestic ferrets, from a broad range of sources, including Aesop's fables, Aelian, Aristophanes, and Pausanias. Some ancient weasel tales survive in modern Greece. Surveys legendary and historical battles with giants, from Goliath to the Germanic tribes defeated by the ancient Romans, and medieval giant knights to the Prussian regiment of giant soldiers.
Examines literary evidence for discoveries of, and legends about, prehistoric fossils in ancient Greece and Rome. Argues that Greek myths of giants and monsters were influenced by observations of large remains of extinct animals around the Mediterranean. Mayor, Adrienne and Michael Heaney. Who Were the Arimaspeans? Mayor argues that the classical Greco-Roman griffin legend was inspired by descriptions of beaked quadruped dinosaur fossils in gold deposits of Central Asia.
Heaney marshals linguistic evidence for the continuity of the ancient Arimaspean legends of Scythia in the Almas a Yeti-type figure of modern Mongolia. Mayor, Adrienne and Josiah Ober. Reprinted in R.
Cowley, ed. New York: Norton. The meaning of ancient Greco-Roman and modern legends of warrior women, with archaeological evidence, maps, illustrations. McCartney, Eugene S. An index of classical folklore studies and sources up to , compiled by a classicist; particularly useful for its list of annotated editions of ancient authors "who preserved rich stores of folklore material.
McDonough, Christopher. Mondi, Robert. Murray, Oswyn. Using the anthropological model of African oral history, Murray considers the sources and transmission of oral folk narratives in Asia and Africa collected by the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus. Nagy, Gregory. Poetry as Performance: Homer and Beyond. Applying comparative evidence of oral traditions to Homeric epic, Nagy traces the ways that oral poetry recreates ever new variations of the "same" stories until old tales are crystallised in written texts.
Nagy argues that a song cannot be fixed as a final written text as long as the oral poetic tradition stays alive. Oesterley, Hermann, ed. Gesta Romanorum. Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, This Latin edition of a body of popular romantic and fantastic tales from late antiquity contains ground- breaking lists of other classical, medieval, and modern versions of the ancient stories from a huge variety of sources.
A valuable tool for comparativists.
Oliphant, S. Ancient witch lore. Omidsalar, M. Bruce Boyer, Ruth M. Boyer and Stephen M. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, Page, D. Folktales in Homer's "Odyssey. Panofsky, Dora and Erwin Panofsky. Explains how imaginative reshaping and transcribing errors by writers and artists 67 illus. The ambivalent symbolism of Pandora makes the myth a sensitive marker of the "ebb and flow of the sex- war.
Engaging chapters on important folklore themes in classical literature, including fatal gifts, enchanted spaces, aphrodisiacs, magic, and magicians. Payne, Martha. Dora C. Pozzi and John M.
Payne discusses the legend cycles surrounding the figure of Alexander the Great, especially tales of nereids mermaids. Pecere, Oronzo and Antonio Stramaglia, eds. Cassino, Italy: University degli Studi di Cassino, Papers from an international conference on ancient popular literature: two essays in English treat the Aesop romance a comic biography and survey ancient compilations of marvels, ancient predecessors of Ripley's Believe It or Not.
Penzer, Norman. Perry, Ben E. A valuable collection of the ancient evidence about Aesop the person and the Aesopic fable, including one text of every Greek or Latin fable in the Aesopic tradition, making this a virtual type-index of the Greco-Roman fable. Ransome, Hilda. London: Allen and Unwin, Classical Greek myths and legends related to honey and bees. Reece, Steve. Innovative study of the typical hospitality scene in Homeric tradition. Reece employs folkloric tools, creating a motif-based description of the twenty-five elements of the type-scene, e.
Fascinating consideration of the historical and archaeological evidence for the Greco-Roman legend of Midas of the golden touch and the ass's ears. Midas was a ruler of Phrygia now Turkey in the eighth century BC; Roller shows how the Midas traditions about greed and wealth served different purpose for Greek audiences over the centuries.
Romm, James. Focuses on ancient Greek and Roman traditions about exotic cultures as a literary genre. Many classical "wonder-tales" about "barbarians" contain familiar folklore motifs and themes that survived into Renaissance Europe. Good source for contemporary legends that circulated among Greeks and Romans; the ancient writers also preserved fragments and hints of beliefs that circulated within Africa and Asia as retold by Mediterranean travellers.
Rose, H. Handbook of Greek Mythology. London: Methuen, Standard survey of ancient Greek myth and legend.
Once revolutionary, Rose is sometimes contradictory and lacks historical accounts, comic tales, and fables, but the handbook is still a valuable tool. Russell, W. Davidson and W. Cambridge: D. Brewer for the Folklore Society, Gillian Bennett. Russo, J. By studying the phonetics and structural devices of fifth-century BC proverbs in Herodotus, Russo recognises traditional proverbial material in other Greek literature.
Salles, Catherine. An interesting, if controversial, essay on popular Roman literature. Sax, Boria. The Frog King. New York: Pace University Press, The Parliament of Animals. Scobie, Alex.
Collects evidence for professional and amateur storytellers in ancient Greece and Rome. Discusses hostility of "elite" authorities to popular story performers in classical Greece and the impact of literacy on oral narrative in the first and second centuries AD in Rome. Alexander the Great and the Emperor Augustus were patrons of itinerant storytellers. Apuleius and Folklore. London: Folklore Society, Chapter 1 surveys ancient oral literature, storytelling, and the novel.
Chapter 2 addresses witchcraft and shapeshifting; chapters 3 and 4 analyse the migratory legends about witches and human-animal transformations in Apuleius's second-century AD novel The Golden Ass. Appendices contain several variants. Segal, Robert A. In Quest of the Hero. Sifakis, G. The final section of this paper by a classicist compares the use of folklore in ancient Greek comedy to narrative strategies in European folk tales, especially in the way ordinary characters are allowed to consummate "wishful thinking.