Programming in ansi c by balaguruswamy 3rd edition pdf

 
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  1. Ansi c Balaguruswamy-C Language.pdf
  2. Programing in Ansi c by E Balagurusamy
  3. FREE EBOOK PROGRAMMING IN ANSI C 3RD ED BY E BALAGURUSAMY DOWNLOAD
  4. Programing in Ansi c by E Balagurusamy

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Programming In Ansi C By Balaguruswamy 3rd Edition Pdf

Author: E. Balagurusamy Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Date: Format: pdf. Language: English ISBN Pages: ISBN Programming In ANSI c by Balagurusamy pdf Download free . “The C Programming Language”, 2nd edition, by Kernighan and Ritchie, is widely considered to. 1 programing in ansi 'c' balagurusamy 2 let us c yashwant kanitkar 3 algebra vol2 This Digital Download PDF eBook edition and related web site are NOT.

No programming language produces o nly correct results. No programmer should start each project from scratch. Objec t-oriented programming is the current cure-all although it has been around for m uch more then ten years. At the core, there is little more to it then finally ap plying the good programming principles which we have been taught for more then t wenty years. Only object-orientation permits code reuse between projects a lthough the idea of subroutines is as old as computers and good programmers alwa ys carried their toolkits and libraries with them. This book is not going to pra ise object-oriented programming or condemn the Old Way. We are simply going to u se ANSI-C to discover how object-oriented programming is done, what its techniqu es are, why they help us solve bigger problems, and how we harness generality an d program to catch mistakes earlier. Along the way we encounter all the jargon c lasses, inheritance, instances, linkage, methods, objects, polymorphisms, and mo re but we take it out of the realm of magic and see how it translates into the t hings we have known and done all along. To share this fun you need to be reasonably fluent in ANSI-C to begin with feeling comfortable with structures, pointers, pr ototypes, and function pointers is a must. We start with a careful information hiding technique for abstract data types, add generic functions based on dynamic linkage and inherit code by j udicious lengthening of structures. Finally, we put it all together in a class h ierarchy that makes code much easier to maintain. Programming takes discipline. Good programming takes a lot of discipline, a large number of principles, and st andard, defensive ways of doing things right. Programmers use tools.

A bstract Data Types. An Example Set. Memory Management. Obje ct. An Application. An Implementation Set. Anothe r Implementation Bag Summary. Dynamic Linkage Generic Functions. Constructors and Des tructors. Methods, Messages, Classes and Objects. An Impl ementation String. Another Implementation Atom. Summar y. The Main Loop. The Scanner. The Recognizer.

The Processor.

Infix Output. Programming Savvy Arithmetic Expressions. Inheritance Code Reuse and Refinement. A Superclass Point. Superclass Implementation Point Inheritance Circle. Linkag e and Inheritance.

Static and Dynamic Linkage. Visibility and Acce ss Functions. Subclass Implementation Circle. Is It or Has It?

Inheritance vs. Multiple Inheritance. Aggreg ates. Scanning Identifiers. Using Variables. The Screener Na me. Assi gnment. Another Subclass Constants. Mathematical Functions M ath. Roots Object and Class. Subclassing Any. Implementation Object. Implementation Class. Superclass Selectors. Class Hierarchy Maintainability. Implementation Strategy.

Object Revisited. Techni que. An Example list Implementation. Coding Standard. Avoiding Recursion Summary. Dynamic Type Checking Defensive Programming. Initializer Lists munch Functions for Objects. Implemen tation. Abstract Base Classes. Another application sort. Exercise s. An Example. Class Methods. Storing Objects puto. Filling Objects geto. Loading O bjects retrieve.

Attaching Objects value Revisited Summary. Implementation Exce ption Examples. Implement ation. Names and Scope. Pointers to Functions. Verification assert. Globa l Jumps setjmp. Variable Argument Lists stdarg. Memory Management stdlib. Memory Functions string. File Management io. Recognition parse.

The Datab ase. Report Generation report. Th e Main Program main. Report Files. The ooc Command. Root Classes. GUI Calculator Cl asses. B The ooc Preprocessor Hints on awk Programming. C Manual. ANSI-C has int, d ouble and char to name just a few. Programmers are rarely content with what's avai lable and a programming language normally provides facilities to build new data types from those that are predefined.

A simple approach is to form aggregates su ch as arrays, structures, or unions. Pointers, according to C. What exactly is a data type? We can take several points of view. A data type is a set of values char typically has distinct v alues, int has many more; both are evenly spaced and behave more or less like th e natural numbers or integers of mathematics.

Alternative ly, we can define a data type as a set of values plus operations to work with th em. Typically, the values are what a computer can represent, and the operations more or less reflect the available hardware instructions. More complicated e xamples do not fare much better. Good programming principles dictate tha t we conceal the representation of a data item and declare only the possible man ipulations.

At a theoretical level this requires us to specify the properties of the data type by mathematical axioms involving the possible operations. For example, we can remove an element from a queue only as often as we have added one previously , and we retrieve the elements in the same order in which they were added.

Since the representation is not part of the definition, w e are free to choose whatever is easiest or most efficient to implement. If we m anage to distribute the necessary information correctly, use of the data type an d our choice of implementation are totally independent. Abstract data types sati sfy the good programming principles of information hiding and divide and conquer. Information such as the representation of data items is given only to the one with a need to know: to the implementer and not to the user.

With an abstract d ata type we cleanly separate the programming tasks of implementation and usage: we are well on our way to decompose a large system into smaller modules. As an example we consider a set of elements with the operations add , find , and drop.

Viewed this way, set is an abstract data typ e. To declare what we can do with a set, we start a header file Set. This technique of protecting header files is so standard, that the GNU C preprocessor recogniz es it and does not even access such a file when its protecting symbol is defined.

We can hardly reveal or assume less: Set will have to somehow represent the fact, that we are working with sets; add ta kes an element, adds it to a set, and returns whatever was added or already pres ent in the set; find looks for an element in a set and returns whatever is pre sent in the set or a null pointer; drop locates an element, removes it from a set, and returns whatever was removed; contains converts the result of find into a truth value.

If we used this name for a set function, we could no longer include stdio. On the one hand it makes it impos sible to discover what a set looks like, but on the other hand it permits us to pass virtually anything to add and the other functions.

Not everything will be have like a set or an element we are sacrificing type security in the interest o f information hiding. However, we will see in chapter 8 that this approach can b e made completely secure. Set is a pointer, n ot a type defined by typedef; therefore, we cannot define local or global variab les of type Set.

Instead, we are only going to use pointers to refer to sets and elements, and we declare source and sink of all data items in new. The text only shows the interesting parts of each new file, the source diskette contains the complete code of all examples.

If t hey are, the descriptor has to indicate at least how much memory is required. This description leaves room for the functionality of strcmp : for s ome pairs of objects we might choose to return a negative or positive value to s pecify an ordering.

Real life objects need more functionality to do something us eful. For the moment, we restrict ourselves to the bare necessities for membersh ip in a set.

Ansi c Balaguruswamy-C Language.pdf

If we built a bigger class library, we would see that a set and in fact everything else is an object, too. At this point, a lot of functionality re sults more or less for free. If all is well, we find the objec ts in the set and we should not find another new object.

The program should simp ly print ok. The call to differ illustrates a semantic point: a mathematical s et can only contain one copy of the object a; an attempt to add it again must re turn the original object and differ ought to be false. Similarly, once we remo ve the object, it should no longer be in the set. Removing an element not in a s et will result in a null pointer being passed to delete.

For now, we stick wit h the semantics of free and require this to be acceptable. If an object stores no information and if every object belongs to at most one set, we can re present each object and each set as small, unique, positive integer values used as indices into an array heap[]. If an object is a member of a set, its array el ement contains the integer value representing the set. Objects, therefore, point to the set containing them. Sets and objects have the same representation, so new pays no attentio n to the type description.

It only returns an element in heap[] with value zero: if! Before an object is added to a set, we let it contain the impossible ind ex value MANY so that new cannot find it again and we still cannot mistake it as a memb er of any set. A more realistic implementation should at least print a reasonable error message o r use a general function for error handling which the user may overwrite. For ou r purpose of developing a coding technique, however, we prefer to keep the code uncluttered.

In chapter 13 we will look at a general technique for handling exce ptions. A set is represented in its obje to the set. If an element contains MANY, it can be adde it should already be in the set because we do not permi more than one set. The other functions are just as simple. In this case, however, we would replicate most of the code of find in drop. Our implementation is quite unconventional.

It turns out that we d o not need differ to implement a set. We still need to provide it, because our application uses this function. For an element, count reco rds how many times this element has been added to the set. If we decrement count each time the element is passed to drop and only remove the element once coun t is zero, we have a Bag , i.

If drop finds its element in the set, it decrements the element's reference count and the number of element s in the set. The overhea d of a function call is insignificant compared to the danger of an application b eing able to overwrite a critical value.

Our application in section 1. After it is dropped from the set once, contains will still find it in the bag. The test p rogram now has the output ok drop?

The application co de can only access a header file where a descriptor pointer represents the data type and where operations on the data type are declared as functions accepting a nd returning generic pointers. The descriptor pointer is passed to a general fun ction new to obtain a pointer to a data item, and this pointer is passed to a general function delete to recycle the associated resources.

Normally, each ab stract data type is implemented in a single source file.

Ideally, it has no acce ss to the representation of other data types. If we continue to represent objects as small unique integer values, and if we put a ceiling on the number of objects available, we can repr esent a set as a bitmap stored in a long character string, where a bit selected by the object value is set or cleared depending on the presence of the object in the set. A more general and more conventional solution represents a set as a li near list of nodes storing the addresses of objects in the set.

This imposes no restriction on objects and permits a set to be implemented without knowing the r epresentation of an object. Filling Objects geto. Loading O bjects retrieve. Attaching Objects value Revisited Summary. Implementation Exce ption Examples. Implement ation.

Names and Scope. Pointers to Functions. Verification assert. Globa l Jumps setjmp. Variable Argument Lists stdarg. Memory Management stdlib. Memory Functions string. File Management io. Recognition parse. The Datab ase. Report Generation report.

Programing in Ansi c by E Balagurusamy

Th e Main Program main. Report Files. The ooc Command. Root Classes. GUI Calculator Cl asses. B The ooc Preprocessor Hints on awk Programming. C Manual. ANSI-C has int, d ouble and char to name just a few. Programmers are rarely content with what's avai lable and a programming language normally provides facilities to build new data types from those that are predefined. A simple approach is to form aggregates su ch as arrays, structures, or unions.

Pointers, according to C. What exactly is a data type? We can take several points of view. A data type is a set of values char typically has distinct v alues, int has many more; both are evenly spaced and behave more or less like th e natural numbers or integers of mathematics.

Alternative ly, we can define a data type as a set of values plus operations to work with th em. Typically, the values are what a computer can represent, and the operations more or less reflect the available hardware instructions. More complicated e xamples do not fare much better.

Good programming principles dictate tha t we conceal the representation of a data item and declare only the possible man ipulations. At a theoretical level this requires us to specify the properties of the data type by mathematical axioms involving the possible operations. For example, we can remove an element from a queue only as often as we have added one previously , and we retrieve the elements in the same order in which they were added.

Since the representation is not part of the definition, w e are free to choose whatever is easiest or most efficient to implement. If we m anage to distribute the necessary information correctly, use of the data type an d our choice of implementation are totally independent.

Abstract data types sati sfy the good programming principles of information hiding and divide and conquer. Information such as the representation of data items is given only to the one with a need to know: to the implementer and not to the user.

With an abstract d ata type we cleanly separate the programming tasks of implementation and usage: we are well on our way to decompose a large system into smaller modules. As an example we consider a set of elements with the operations add , find , and drop. Viewed this way, set is an abstract data typ e. To declare what we can do with a set, we start a header file Set.

This technique of protecting header files is so standard, that the GNU C preprocessor recogniz es it and does not even access such a file when its protecting symbol is defined. We can hardly reveal or assume less: Set will have to somehow represent the fact, that we are working with sets; add ta kes an element, adds it to a set, and returns whatever was added or already pres ent in the set; find looks for an element in a set and returns whatever is pre sent in the set or a null pointer; drop locates an element, removes it from a set, and returns whatever was removed; contains converts the result of find into a truth value.

If we used this name for a set function, we could no longer include stdio. On the one hand it makes it impos sible to discover what a set looks like, but on the other hand it permits us to pass virtually anything to add and the other functions.

Not everything will be have like a set or an element we are sacrificing type security in the interest o f information hiding. However, we will see in chapter 8 that this approach can b e made completely secure. Set is a pointer, n ot a type defined by typedef; therefore, we cannot define local or global variab les of type Set. Instead, we are only going to use pointers to refer to sets and elements, and we declare source and sink of all data items in new.

The text only shows the interesting parts of each new file, the source diskette contains the complete code of all examples. If t hey are, the descriptor has to indicate at least how much memory is required. This description leaves room for the functionality of strcmp : for s ome pairs of objects we might choose to return a negative or positive value to s pecify an ordering. Real life objects need more functionality to do something us eful. For the moment, we restrict ourselves to the bare necessities for membersh ip in a set.

If we built a bigger class library, we would see that a set and in fact everything else is an object, too. At this point, a lot of functionality re sults more or less for free.

FREE EBOOK PROGRAMMING IN ANSI C 3RD ED BY E BALAGURUSAMY DOWNLOAD

If all is well, we find the objec ts in the set and we should not find another new object. The program should simp ly print ok. The call to differ illustrates a semantic point: a mathematical s et can only contain one copy of the object a; an attempt to add it again must re turn the original object and differ ought to be false. Similarly, once we remo ve the object, it should no longer be in the set. Removing an element not in a s et will result in a null pointer being passed to delete.

For now, we stick wit h the semantics of free and require this to be acceptable. If an object stores no information and if every object belongs to at most one set, we can re present each object and each set as small, unique, positive integer values used as indices into an array heap[]. If an object is a member of a set, its array el ement contains the integer value representing the set.

Objects, therefore, point to the set containing them. Sets and objects have the same representation, so new pays no attentio n to the type description. It only returns an element in heap[] with value zero: if! Before an object is added to a set, we let it contain the impossible ind ex value MANY so that new cannot find it again and we still cannot mistake it as a memb er of any set.

A more realistic implementation should at least print a reasonable error message o r use a general function for error handling which the user may overwrite.

For ou r purpose of developing a coding technique, however, we prefer to keep the code uncluttered. In chapter 13 we will look at a general technique for handling exce ptions. A set is represented in its obje to the set.

If an element contains MANY, it can be adde it should already be in the set because we do not permi more than one set. The other functions are just as simple.

In this case, however, we would replicate most of the code of find in drop. Our implementation is quite unconventional. It turns out that we d o not need differ to implement a set. We still need to provide it, because our application uses this function.

For an element, count reco rds how many times this element has been added to the set. If we decrement count each time the element is passed to drop and only remove the element once coun t is zero, we have a Bag , i.

If drop finds its element in the set, it decrements the element's reference count and the number of element s in the set. The overhea d of a function call is insignificant compared to the danger of an application b eing able to overwrite a critical value.

Our application in section 1. After it is dropped from the set once, contains will still find it in the bag. The test p rogram now has the output ok drop? The application co de can only access a header file where a descriptor pointer represents the data type and where operations on the data type are declared as functions accepting a nd returning generic pointers. The descriptor pointer is passed to a general fun ction new to obtain a pointer to a data item, and this pointer is passed to a general function delete to recycle the associated resources.

Normally, each ab stract data type is implemented in a single source file. Ideally, it has no acce ss to the representation of other data types. If we continue to represent objects as small unique integer values, and if we put a ceiling on the number of objects available, we can repr esent a set as a bitmap stored in a long character string, where a bit selected by the object value is set or cleared depending on the presence of the object in the set. A more general and more conventional solution represents a set as a li near list of nodes storing the addresses of objects in the set.

This imposes no restriction on objects and permits a set to be implemented without knowing the r epresentation of an object. For debugging it is very helpful to be able to look at individual objects. Bot h functions return the number of characters written. For a new string we allocate a dynamic buffer to hold the text. When the stri ng is deleted, we will have to reclaim the buffer. Based on the parameter, we could use a chain of if statements to handle each creation individually.

The drawback is that new would explicit ly contain code for each data type which we support. It, too, must behave differently based on the type of the object b eing deleted: for a string the text buffer must be freed; for an object as used in chapter 1 only the object itself has to be reclaimed; and a set may have acqu ired various chunks of memory to store references to its elements.

We could give delete another parameter: either our type descriptor or the function to do th e cleaning up, but this approach is clumsy and error-prone. There is a much more general and elegant way: each object must know how to destroy its own resources. Part of each and every object will be a pointer with which we can locate a cle an-up function. We call such a function a destructor for the object. Now new h as a problem.

It is responsible for creating objects and returning pointers that can be passed to delete , i. The obvious approach is to make a pointer to the destructor part of the type descriptor which is passed to new.

Since constructor and destructor are type-specific and do not change , we pass both to new as part of the type description. Note that constructor a nd destructor are not responsible for acquiring and releasing the memory for an object itself this is the job of new and delete. The constructor is called b y new and is only responsible for initializing the memory area allocated by ne w.

For a string, this does involve acquiring another piece of memory to store the text, but the space for struct String itself is allocated by new. This spa ce is later freed by delete. First, however, delete calls the destructor whi ch essentially reverses the initialization done by the constructor before delete recycles the memory area allocated by new. Therefore, revising the declarations shown in section 2. What s hould this pointer point to?

If all we have is the address of an object, this po inter gives us access to type-specific information for the object, such as its d estructor function. It seems likely that we will soon invent other type-specific functions such as a function to display objects, or our comparison function dif fer , or a function clone to create a complete copy of an object.

Therefore w e will use a pointer to a table of function pointers. Looking down this list, we notice that every function works for the object through which it will be selected. Only the constructor may have to cope with a partially initialized memory area. We c all these functions methods for the objects. Calling a method is termed a messag e and we have marked the receiving object of the message with the parameter name self.

Since we are using plain C functions, self need not be the first paramete r. Many objects will share the same type descriptor, i. We call all objects with the same type descriptor a class ; a single object is called an instance of the class. So far a class, an abstract data type, and a set of possible values together with operations, i. An object is an instance of a class, i. Conven tionally speaking, an object is a value of a particular data type. The obje ct is created at run time and the dashed pointers are then inserted.

We force a conv ersion of p which treats the beginning of the object as a pointer to a struct Cl ass and set the argument class as the value of this pointer.

Programing in Ansi c by E Balagurusamy

Next, if a construc tor is part of the type description, we call it and return its result as the res ult of new , i. Section 2. Note that only exp licitly visible functions like new can have a variable parameter list.

Since we might later want to share the original parameters among several functions, we pass the address of ap to the constructor when it re turns, ap will point to the first argument not consumed by the constructor. This is used to call the destructor if any exists. Here, self plays th e role of p in the previous picture. If the constructor decides to cheat, the destructor thus ha s a chance to correct things, see section 2.

If an object does not want to be deleted, its destructor would return a null pointer. All other methods stored in the type description are called in a similar fashion.

In each case we have a si ngle receiving object self and we need to route the method call through its desc riptor: 2.

For the momen t at least, we guard against null pointers. In any case, differ illustrates why this technique of calling functions is called dynamic linkage or late binding : while we can call differ for arbitrary objects as long as they start with an approp riate type description pointer, the function that actually does the work is dete rmined as late as possible only during execution of the actual call, not before.

We will call differ a selector function. It is an example of a polymorphic fu nction , i. Once we implement more classes which al l contain. We can view selectors as method s which themselves are not dynamically linked but still behave like polymorphic functions because they let dynamically linked functions do their real work.

Poly morphic functions are actually built into many programming languages, e. This phenomenon is called overloading : argument types and the operator name together determine what the operator does; the same opera tor name can be used with different argument types to produce different effects.

Methods can be polymorphic without having dynamic linkage. They are derived from the correspond ing components of struct Class by simply removing one indirection from the decla rator.

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